Regulating the British Economy, 1660–1850
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Zelizer, Taxing America: Wilbur D. Pollack, The Failure of U. Summers, ed. Birnbaum and Alan S. Brookings, Pechman, Who Paid the Taxes, Brookings, Sexton, and Steven M. Fisher, The Worst Tax? Public Policy Westview, Campagna, U. National Economic Policy, Praeger, Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. Rivlin, eds. Planning the Twentieth-Century American City. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Hollingsworth, ed. Edward Elgar Publishing, Penner and Alan J. Peacock, Anderson and Jared E. Harper and Row, Princeton, UP, MacKuen, Robert S.
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Johnson and Gary D. Kindleberger, The World in Depression, Bernanke, Essays on the Great Depression Princeton, Lindberg and Charles S. Maier, eds. Clarke, Marianne C. Stewart, and Gary Zuk, eds. The Changing U. Wage Structure Brookings, Blinder, ed. Litan, Robert Z. Lawrence, and Charles L. Schultze, eds. Auerbach, David Card, and John M. Quiqley, eds. Jacobs and Theda Skocpol, eds. Williamson and Peter H.
Since Praeger, Allen and J. Foley and Thomas R. Shapiro and E. Wolff Ed. Assets for the poor Russell Sage Foundation, , pp. Wolff, Miller and Stephen J. McNamee, eds. Donald Moon, ed. Evans and Barbara J. Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being Cambridge, Edsall, The New Politics of Inequality Winnick, Toward Two Societies Praeger, Calomiris and Stephen H. Wiley, Reinhart, Kenneth S.
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Miranti, Jr. A History of the Boom, HarperBusiness, Lombra and Willard E. Witte, eds. Princeton University, Reagan, The Managed Economy Oxford, Hyde, ed. Golembiewski and Jack Rabin, eds. Marcel Dekker, Quigley and Eugene Smolensky, eds. Longman, Patashnik , P utting Trust in the U. University of Chicago Press, Even so, the image evocatively captures the chaos of a dimly lit slave deck.
Africans are spread uncomfortably across the tops of barrels, some on mats, some on the bare wooden hoops; one captive sits on a latrine in the foreground, wrapping himself with his arms. Above the barrels, slaves perch and lie on wooden beams, some with their legs dangling over the ledge. Light pours in from the ceiling but only illuminates the captives in the center of the image. The fact that it is daylight gives some sense of how the Africans would have experienced the Middle Passage: packed below deck on whatever few inches of space they could find Francis Meynell, Slaves below deck, While the Albanez and Isla de Cuba give some sense of the holds of illegal slavers, the recently unearthed painting of the Diligente Figure 7 reveals the sheer mass of humanity that slave traders crammed onto their vessels.
The Diligente ID was a ton brig depicted leaning in slightly toward the painter. It carried Africans - survivors of embarked at Lagos. Detained on its way to Cuba in , the Diligente provides, at first glance, the most accurate depiction of the fair-weather day-time experience of captives for any period; not even the image of the Marie-Seraphique Figure 3 provides such a view. But things are not quite what they seem. The deck shows fewer than half the number of captives that we can document as disembarking a few days after the detention.
Furthermore, the seven blue-jacketed figures can only be the prize crew from HMS Pearl , not the original slave ship crew. Thus, the artist is probably on the quarter-deck of HMS Pearl as the naval vessel conducts its prize to Nassau in the Bahamas - the capture having taken place in the Caribbean, not off the African coast. The missing two hundred or so Africans are probably below deck as can be seen in the open hatch beside the mainmast.
But here, as with all the other Portuguese vessels mentioned here, there is no sign of a barricado. Crewmen likely enforced the separation of male and female slaves through restraints and violence or, alternatively, kept captives below deck for the voyage. To derive a perspective of crowding on the Diligente we need to imagine double the number of figures depicted in the painting, crammed below deck.
Sloop Pearl with slaves on board, taken in charge to Nassau, Three illustrations cannot encapsulate the experience of captives in the nineteenth century slave trade, but they can indicate change in that experience over time. The illegal phase of the trade as represented in the voluminous reports of British naval officers communicates a sense of the wild west where, especially after the equipment clause, almost anything was possible. Apart from the open launches discussed earlier, slave traders used other strategies to economize on small spaces that fundamentally altered the African experience of the Middle Passage.
In , a ton vessel bound from Ambriz to Brazil took off with captives - over half of them were children. In summary, European and African interaction on the coast generated three broad categories of slave experiences over years. The first typically involved vessels carrying fewer than captives and shipped considerable produce to Europe from Upper Guinea, or, if going to the Americas, European merchandise and migrants.
Confined mainly to the first half of the sixteenth century, the transatlantic voyages might have obtained their captives from the Iberian Peninsula, or they might set out from Iberian ports and collect captives from the Canaries or Cape Verde Islands en route. In such cases the slave experience would have included an additional voyage of several hundred kilometers from the mainland to these off-shore islands - as well as detention in barracoons.
The vessels involved were caravels or galleons little different from their counterparts that plied the Atlantic and Pacific without slaves on board. The second category evolved from the first, the main difference being that as demand for slaves increased, the vessel became a recognizable slave ship complete with dedicated slave deck, and more or less permanent shackles for the men. Crowding became intense, but time spent on the vessel was not much different. This system continued throughout the slave trade era, though it became increasingly a defining characteristic of the South Atlantic slave trade.
The third category, associated with the northern European incursion into the business, comprised the same dense crowding, but a more heavily fortified vessel, larger numbers of crew, long periods spent on the ship both before and after leaving Africa, and greatly increased risk of slave revolts. We cannot be sure of the start date, but it was probably in effect for only years and it is likely that fewer than half the Perhaps, in the end even accurate contemporary depictions have to give way to 3D visualizations.
The version of slavevoyages contains a video that begins to show what is possible. The half has never been told : slavery and the making of American capitalism. New York: Basic Books, Empire of cotton : a global history. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, Slavery and capitalism. The costs of coercion: African agency in the pre-modern Atlantic world. Economic History Review , Hoboken, v.
The diary of Antera Duke, an eighteenth-century African slave trader.
New York: Oxford University Press, New and accurate description of the coast of Guinea, divided into the Gold, the Slave, and the Ivory Coasts. London: James Knapton and Dan. Midwinter, An African slaving port and the Atlantic world : Benguela and its hinterland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, My voyage around the world. Translator Herbert Weinstock.
MidwinterLondon: James Knapton and Dan. Midwinter: Pantheon Books, Collection of voyages and travels : some now first printed from original. London: Awnsham and John Churchill, The population history of Luanda during the late Atlantic slave trade, African Economic History , Madison, n.
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Brussels: Institut Royal Colonial Belge, The early Iberian slave trade to the Spanish Caribbean, From the Galleons to the Highlands : slave trade routes in the Spanish Americas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, ELBL, Ivana. The Portuguese trade with West Africa, Fluctuations in the age and sex ratios of slaves in the nineteenth-century transatlantic slave traffic.
Economic growth and the ending of the transatlantic slave trade. New York: Oxford University Press , The total product of Barbados, Journal of Economic History , Cambridge, v. Atlas of the transatlantic slave trade.
New Haven: Yale University Press, Fluctuations in sex and age ratios in the transatlantic slave trade, More than profits? Accounting for the traffic in Africans: transport costs on slaving voyages. An account of the slave trade on the Coast of Africa. London: J. Phillips, Beyond profitability: the dutch transatlantic slave trade and its economic impact. Transforming Atlantic slaving: trade, warfare and territorial control in Angola, Slavery and resistance to slaving in West Central Africa. Cambridge World History of Slavery.
Rio de Janeiro: Record, Capitalism and slavery. Pirates of New York : the American slave trade in the age of antislavery. Economic History of West Africa. London: Routledge, The politics of slave-trade suppression. The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade : British policies, practices and representations of naval coercion. Manchester: Manchester University Press, Slavery in Brazil.
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , Rational choice, round robin, and rebellion: an institutional solution to the problems of revolution. Maintaining network boundaries: Islamic law and commerce from Sahara to Guinea shores. The children of slavery: the transatlantic phase. Black cargoes : a history of the Atlantic slave trade, London: Viking Press, Rationality and Society , Thousand Oaks, v. London: Epworth Press, Greenwich: National Maritime Museum, Way of death : merchant capitalism and the Angolan slave trade, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, The Senhora do Cabo, ID From capture to sale : the Portuguese slave trade to Spanish South America in the early seventeenth century.
Leiden: Brill, Igbo culture and the Christian missions, : conversion in theory and practice. Lanham: University Press of America, Cotton, slavery, and the new history of capitalism. Explorations in Economic History , Amsterdam, v. Regulating illegal trade: foreign vessels in Brazilian harbors.
Portuguese Studies Review , Ontario, v. The long middle passage : the enslavement of Africans and the trans-Atlantic slave trade, Visualizing the middle passage: the Brooks and the reality of ship crowding in the trans-atlantic slave trade. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Cambridge, v. The slave ship : a human history. London: Penguin Books, Shipboard revolts, African authority, and the Atlantic slave trade.
William and Mary Quarterly , Ann Arbor, v. How slavery led to modern capitalism. Bloomberg , 25 jan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Supplying the slave trade: how Europeans met African demand for European manufactured products, commodities and re-exports, Malerische Reise in Brasilien. Treatise on slavery : selections from De instauranda aethiopum salute. Translator Nicole von Germeten. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Riches from Atlantic commerce : Dutch transatlantic trade and shipping, Leiden: Brill , The demography and economics of Brazilian slavery, The Spanish dollar and the colonial shilling.
American Historical Review , Oxford, v. The slave ship Fredensborg.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, A new world of gold and silver. Paris: Walter de Gruyter, Notices of Brazil in and London: F. Westley and A. Davis, The origins of capitalism : a longer view. London: Verso, In the British case, Williams at least offered the argument that trade protectionism and slavery were linked and that British manufacturers destroyed slavery as part of a quest to destroy protectionism and gain access to global markets - an unlikely argument, but at least an argument.
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Bloomberg , Jan. In other words, the Dutch slave trade comprised an infinitesimally small share of Dutch overseas trade when slave trade was at its height. Beyond profitability: the Dutch transatlantic slave trade and its economic impact. Leiden: Brill, , p. The average height of the slave deck for 21 intercepted vessels between and was just 3.
Simpson to Capt. The eighteenth-century counterpart to the modern container unit was the barrel. From the standpoint of the slave trading community - indeed society at large before the nineteenth century - a slave was a package or a barrel, albeit a dangerous package that might explode into revolt and destroy the ship, and one that, unfortunately, had to be fed and guarded. But it seems that if a vessel could carry barrels - the container unit of the early modern era - then it could also carry slaves, as long as it was modified by the carpenter on its way to Africa. If the specifics of ship size and type varied, this was largely on account of the differing coastal environments of the major African embarkation regions, not because of what the ship carried.
London: Routledge, , p. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. The vessel id is London: Awnsham and John Churchill, , v. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, , p. London: Pantheon Books, , p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , p. Phillips, , p. London: Epworth Press, , p. Davis, , v.
Regulating the British economy, 1660-1850
Walsh was on board the slaver voyageid for only a few hours, long enough to take measurements and make a sketch, but not to make a scale diagram. Manchester: Manchester University Press, , p. London: Penguin Books, , p. Midwinter, , p. Bosman was highly disparaging of Portuguese slave traders before Minas Gerais gold reached Africa. This, and perennial problems in royal finance, led to several debasements of the coinage, with the amount of silver in a penny being cut to almost a fifth between the late 14th century and the late 15th century.
The heavily debased "black money" introduced in had to be withdrawn two years later and may have helped fuel a financial and political crisis. From the mid-sixteenth century, Scotland experienced a decline in demand for exports of cloth and wool to the continent. Scots responded by selling larger quantities of traditional goods, increasing the output of salt, herring and coal.
Wages rose rapidly, by between four or five times between and the end of the century, but failed to keep pace with inflation. This situation was punctuated by frequent harvest failures, with almost half the years in the second half of the sixteenth century seeing local or national scarcity, necessitating the shipping of large quantities of grain from the Baltic.
Distress was also exacerbated by outbreaks of plague, with major epidemics in the periods and George Bruce used German techniques to solve the drainage problems of his coal mine at Culross. In the Society of Brewer's was established in Edinburgh and the importing of English hops allowed the brewing of Scottish beer. In the early seventeenth century famine was relatively common, with four periods of famine prices between and The invasions of the s had a profound impact on the Scottish economy, with the destruction of crops and the disruption of markets resulting in some of the most rapid price rises of the century.
Economic conditions were generally favourable from to , as land owners promoted better tillage and cattle-raising. The English Navigation Acts limited the ability of the Scots to engage in what would have been lucrative trading with England's growing colonies, but these were often circumvented, with Glasgow becoming an increasingly important commercial centre, opening up trade with the American colonies: importing sugar from the West Indies and tobacco from Virginia and Maryland. Exports across the Atlantic included linen, woollen goods, coal and grindstones.
However, by the end of the century the drovers roads , stretching down from the Highlands through south-west Scotland to north-east England, had become firmly established. Attempts by the Privy Council to build up luxury industries in cloth mills, soap works, sugar boiling houses, gunpowder and paper works, proved largely unsuccessful. The closing decade of the seventeenth century saw the generally favourable economic conditions that had dominated since the Restoration come to an end.
There was a slump in trade with the Baltic and France from to , caused by French protectionism and changes in the Scottish cattle trade, followed by four years of failed harvests , and , known as the "seven ill years". The "Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies" received a charter to raise capital through public subscription.
By the start of the 18th century, a political union between Scotland and England became politically and economically attractive, promising to open up the much larger markets of England, as well as those of the growing British Empire. The Scottish parliament voted on 6 January , by to 69 to adopt the Treaty of Union. It was a full economic union; indeed, most of its 25 articles dealt with economic arrangements for the new state known as "Great Britain. It also replaced the Scottish systems of currency, taxation and laws regulating trade with laws made in London.
England had about five times the population of Scotland at the time, and about 36 times as much wealth. Contacts with England led to a conscious attempt to improve agriculture among the gentry and nobility. Turnips and cabbages were introduced, lands enclosed and marshes drained, lime was put down, roads built and woods planted. Drilling and sowing and crop rotation were introduced. The introduction of the potato to Scotland in greatly improved the diet of the peasantry. Enclosures began to displace the runrig system and free pasture. The Society of Improvers was founded in , including in its members dukes, earls, lairds and landlords.
The Lothians became a major centre of grain, Ayrshire of cattle breading and the borders of sheep. However, although some estate holders improved the quality of life of their displaced workers, enclosures led to unemployment and forced migrations to the burghs or abroad. The economic benefits of union were very slow to appear, primarily because Scotland was too poor to exploit the opportunities of the greatly expanded free market. Some progress was visible by , such as the sales of linen and cattle to England, the cash flows from military service, and the tobacco trade that was dominated by Glasgow after However, Glasgow immediately re-exported nearly all the tobacco, so it did not stimulate local business, and that port exported few Scottish products.
The tobacco trade collapsed during the American Revolution, when it sources were cut off by the British blockade of American ports. An important new trade to develop with the West Indies that made up for the loss of the tobacco business. Scotland in was a poor rural, agricultural society with a population of 1. Its transformation into a rich leader of modern industry came suddenly and unexpectedly. In Glasgow, merchants who profited from the American trade in the era began investing in leather, textiles, iron, coal, sugar, rope, sailcloth, glassworks, breweries, and soapworks, setting the foundations for the city's emergence as a leading industrial centre after Glasgow emerged as the focus of the tobacco trade, re-exporting particularly to France.
The merchants dealing in this lucrative business became the wealthy tobacco lords , who dominated the city for most of the century. By the expanded and prosperous trade with the West Indies reflected the extensive growth of the cotton industry, the British sweet tooth, and the demand in the West Indies for herring and linen goods. During , 78 Glasgow merchants not only specialized in the importation of sugar, cotton, and rum from the West Indies, but diversified their interests by purchasing West Indian plantations, Scottish estates, or cotton mills.
They were not to be self-perpetuating due to the hazards of the trade, the incident of bankruptcy, and the changing complexity of Glasgow's economy. Other burghs also benefited. Greenock enlarged its port in and sent its first ship to the Americas in , but was soon playing a major part in importing sugar and rum.
The linen industry was Scotland's premier industry in the 18th century and formed the basis for the later cotton, jute,  and woollen industries as well. Paisley adopted Dutch methods and became a major centre of production. Glasgow manufactured for the export trade, which doubled between and Scottish industrial policy was made by the Board of Trustees for Fisheries and Manufactures in Scotland , which sought to build an economy complementary, not competitive, with England.
Since England had woollens, this meant linen. Encouraged and subsidized by the Board of Trustees so it could compete with German products, merchant entrepreneurs became dominant in all stages of linen manufacturing and built up the market share of Scottish linens, especially in the American colonial market. Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,, in the census of to 2,, in and 4,, in At first the leading industry, based in the west, was the spinning and weaving of cotton.
In the American Civil War suddenly cut off the supplies of raw cotton and the industry never recovered. Thanks to its many entrepreneurs and engineers, and its large stock of easily mined coal, Scotland became a world centre for engineering, shipbuilding, and locomotive construction, with steel replacing iron after Liberalism emerged from urban Scotland, the free-trade sentiments and strong individualism of entrepreneurs merging with the radical emphasis on education and self-reliance as a means of community betterment.
Despite political challenges, especially by the s, these distinctive liberal values remained strong. There were over branches, amounting to one office per people, double the level in England. The banks were more lightly regulated than those in England. Historians often emphasize that the flexibility and dynamism of the Scottish banking system contributed significantly to the rapid development of the economy in the 19th century. The British Linen Company, established in , was the largest firm in the Scottish linen industry in the 18th century, exporting linen to England and America. As a joint-stock company, it had the right to raise funds through the issue of promissory notes or bonds.
With its bonds functioning as bank notes, the company gradually moved into the business of lending and discounting to other linen manufacturers, and in the early s banking became its main activity. Renamed British Linen Bank in , it was one of Scotland's premier banks until it was bought out by the Bank of Scotland in Even with the growth of industry there never were enough good jobs, so during the era, about 2 million Scots emigrated to North America and Australia, and another , relocated to England.
By the 21st century, there were about as many people of Scottish descent in both Canada see Scotch Canadians and the U. During the Industrial Revolution , Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of the British Empire. However, by that time Scotland had developed heavy industries based on its coal and iron resources. The invention of the hot blast for smelting iron had revolutionized the Scottish iron industry, and Scotland became a centre for engineering, shipbuilding, and locomotive construction.
Toward the end of the 19th century steel production largely replaced iron production. Emigrant Andrew Carnegie built the American steel industry, and spent much of his time and philanthropy in Scotland. As the 19th century wore on, Lowland Scotland turned more and more towards heavy industry. Glasgow and the River Clyde became a major shipbuilding centre. Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world, and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London.
The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis. Dundee upgraded its harbour and established itself as an industrial and trading centre. Dundee's industrial heritage was based on "the three Js": jute, jam and journalism.
East-central Scotland became too heavily dependent on linens, hemp, and jute. Despite the cyclical nature of the trade which periodically ruined weaker companies, profits held up well in the 19th century.