The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 03: 1555

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The foot of the town was washed by the little river Senne, while the irregular but picturesque streets rose up the steep sides of the hill like the semicircles and stairways of an amphitheatre. Nearly in the heart of the place rose the audacious and exquisitely embroidered tower of the townhouse, three hundred and sixty-six feet in height, a miracle of needlework in stone, rivalling in its intricate carving the cobweb tracery of that lace which has for centuries been synonymous with the city, and rearing itself above a facade of profusely decorated and brocaded architecture.

The crest of the elevation was crowned by the towers of the old ducal palace of Brabant, with its extensive and thickly-wooded park on the left, and by the stately mansions of Orange, Egmont, Aremberg, Culemburg, and other Flemish grandees, on the right.. The great forest of Soignies, dotted with monasteries and convents, swarming with every variety of game, whither the citizens made their summer pilgrimages, and where the nobles chased the wild boar and the stag, extended to within a quarter of a mile of the city walls Toggle navigation Digi Libraries.

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Download links will be available after you disable the ad blocker and reload the page. The Rise of the Dutch Republic - Volume Add to My Favorites. Published: 8 years ago. There is still another aspect, according to Erwin Olaf, to the remediation of history painting into photography. His remark that photojournalism has taught the harsh reality of war to the public, has an interesting implication. It suggests that the tradition of war photography by photographers like Alexander Gardner, Roger Fenton and Robert Capa, which since the 19 th century has been spreading images of the brutal ugliness of destruction and death, has also brought renewal to the pictorial tradition of visualizing historical conflicts.

With the medium of photography, Olaf introduces the unidealized depiction of the cruelty of war, which has always belonged to the tradition of war photography, into the practice of making history pieces. Erwin Olaf's artistry in this project not only lies in his controlled way of handling his medium, the materials, and in his skills in staging and directing these large numbers of people — to which he himself added figures that are difficult to direct, like a woman with Down's syndrome, a two-year old child and a live dog.

In this case his mastery also lies in the way he was able to operate in the midst of all forces that came together in this commission: the tradition of previous paintings on the subject to which he had to relate, the existing histories and the newly acquired visions on the subject matter that he had to take into account, and the wishes of his clients.

This are all aspects which are identical with those found in the big commissions for programmatic paintings in the past, and characteristic for art in situ. Compared to Gursky, Wall and Viola, in this series Erwin Olaf takes an extra mental step in the transformation of painterly traditions into photography, in that he not only makes art that reflects on historical art works, the implications of which are well understood by people who are informed about the tradition to which the artist is adding. The Relief of Leiden by Erwin Olaf is a full-grown manifestation of photography functioning as history painting in all its aspects: beside being an art work it functions as a means of communication for the commemoration of collectively cherished memories of important past events.

It is a good example of the new art form, into which history painting has remediated: history photography. Erwin Olaf gives her an official portrait as leading figure in the story of the relief of Leiden. Although no historic source compelled this, Erwin Olaf introduced a black merchant into the scene, based on knowledge from historians that if black people would have been present in Dutch cities in the 16th century, it would have been as wealthy traders or diplomats from African kingdoms. During the siege of Leiden, some sorties took place; surpise attacks in which farmer-soldiers fought the Spanish.

For this image, Olaf took the seal and logo of Leiden University as a starting point. However, he made the goddess more lively, by having the young model challenging viewers by looking straight in their eyes. Actually, this was the second siege of Leiden, after a similar one which lasted from October to March that was interrupted because the Spanish besieging troops were needed elsewhere. For a comprehensive account of this story in its historical context, see Israel , pp. The historian Judith Pollmann is currently directing a research project entitled Tales of the Revolt.

Oblivion, memory and identity in the Low Countries, , focusing on the impact of memories of the Dutch Revolt on personal and public identities in the 17 th century Low Countries. See www. See Otterspeer The same moment of liberation and the distribution of food was painted in by Pieter van Veen, Otto's younger brother. Neither Otto or Pieter were witnesses to the siege and the relief of Leiden themselves.

Their brother Simon however was , and it is probable that his reports of the events to his brothers formed the basis for their paintings. Although not about the history and history paintings of the Relief of Leiden specifically, Haskell is an interesting book on the way art of different times can reflect and communicate history in different ways.

Reyntjes made his painting autonomously and presented it to the city of Leiden. Founded in See Van den Heuvel and Van Sinderen The project, directed by Professor Judith Pollmann, started on 1 September and ends on 31 August Martin Statement by the photographer in the documentary Van Erp There is one photograph after a painting by the Italian painter Caravaggio. The box with the series of seven photographs was acquired by Leiden University Special Collections in One of the results of the research project Tales of the Revolt.

Smallenburg See the appendix for a list of the assisting crew.

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Most of them were found through professional casting studios that usually work for the advertising and fashion industry. Wall p. Dobai , p. The representation here of the way the various theories on this subject developed , is based on Van Gelder and Westgeest , p. Chevrier [] , p. Gronert Wagstaff , p. Bill Viola See Hanhardt and Viola for a conversation on the ties to painting in Viola's works. Gelder, Van and Westgeest , p.

Bolter and Grusin [] , p. Belting and Viola , p.

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